egids level 0 languages

Language Snapshot 175 Figure 2. My experience in the field confirms the UNESCO assessment. On the EGIDS, level 6a is considered "vigorous" in its community use. The Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale or EGIDS evaluates language health on a scale of 1-10, with one being a thriving language, and 10 being an extinct language. In order for a language to be spoken, read, or written, people must want to do those things. SIL offers training in disciplines relevant to sustainable language development. If the file has been modified from its original state, some details such as the timestamp may not fully reflect those of the original file. The language is used for local and regional work by both insiders and outsiders. Some members of the language community perceive the benefits of reading and writing their local language, but the majority still do not. a critical approximate level of 0.01/6 ≈ 0.0017 is adopted. Reversing language shift, revisited: Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale. The Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale ( EGIDS ), developed by Lewis and Simons (2010), measures a language's status in terms of endangerment or development. This work explores educational and community efforts to revitalize the Quichua language in two indigenous Andean communities of southern Ecuador. All of the remaining levels on the developing side of the EGIDS scale (4 or lower) have in common that the language has been developed to the point that it is utilized beyond the home and immediate community. Using the FAMED scores an overall EGIDS score can be assigned. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. They suggest ways of establishing which level to target, and how to marshal resources appropriately. A majority of these are EGIDS 5 and are developing. Fishman first introduced GIDS in his book Reversing Language Shift There are eight levels in GIDS, which distinguishes languages on the more vital side of things. Level 0 is the highest level of language vitality and describes a situation where the language is widel y used at an international level for knowledge exchange and international policy. It will either move up the scale toward a higher level of sustainability if active language development is occurring, or it will slide down the scale to a lower level of sustainability if there is no language development occurring. extinct 0 None speak the language. In this scale - quite counterintuitively - the highest level is 0, where languages are world-wide used koine´s, while languages on level 10 are already extinct. Advocacy in the community will be essential, but never overlook the felt needs of the community. These are the questions that need to be assessed. EGIDS to be applied to all languages of the world" (Lewis-Simons 2010: 110). numbers in the five boxes and write the sum (0 to 15) in the Totals cell at the bottom of the page. Globalization puts small languages at a disadvantage, but our understanding of the drivers and rate of language loss remains incomplete. This will probably include an aspect of what Cooper calls 'modernization' (1989:149-153, but be sure to read this book cover to cover). The language is used for local and regional mass media and govt services. Communities developing resources and competencies for using their languages, Foundational understanding for language development work of all kinds, Publications, fonts and computer tools for language development, translation and research. CLICK for map of world languages & regional websites. Sustainable Orality. Language in India www.languageinindia.com ISSN 1930-2940 19:7 July 2019 R. Karthick Narayanan, M.A., MPhil. The only remaining speakers of the language are members of the grandparent generation or older who have little opportunity to use the language. (ed.). The more consistently and persistently the language is used, the stronger the language is.  Choose a description below that best fits your language or look up your language on the Ethnologue> website to find the EGIDS ranking assigned to it. The Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS), developed by Lewis and Simons (2010), measures a language's status in terms of endangerment or development.. Found inside – Page 20Table 2.4 Lews & Simons EGIDS language endangerment scale Level Label Description 0 International The language is used internationally for a broad range of functions 1 National Same as Fishman Level 1 2 Regional Same as Fishman Level 2 ... where: Religious schools may exist where no government schools do, in that case the stance of the religious institution is just as important as the government's, if not more so. The same is true with literacy. language. 1 National The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government at the national level. That is more than the number of languages (1,863, 25%) that have experienced enough language development (EGIDS 0-5) to rise about the default stage of vigorous oral use (EGIDS 67a).' p.11 EGIDS 0 (International) is a category reserved for those few languages that are used as the means of communication in many countries for the purposes of diplomacy and international commerce. You can see now that BT organizations excel in Function. Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. According to the Ethnologue, the EGIDS level for this language in its primary country is 2 (Provincial)--meaning that the language is used in education, work, mass media, and government within major administrative subdivisions of a nation. There is full oral transmission of the vernacular language to all children in the home (literacy acquisition, if any, is in the second language). Makasar language has recognized 3 writing systems, like Makassar script (16-19 centuries . a ^ Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) of Ethnologue: 0 (International): "The language is widely used between nations in trade, knowledge exchange, and international policy." 1 (National): "The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government at the national level." EGIDS level EGIDS label EGIDS description UNESCO Descriptor UNESCO Factor 0 International The language is used internationally for a broad range of functions. Each level has a number and label, given in the table below. Found inside – Page 42The second factor relevant for each level of the scale is language use: While problems with language use are characteristic of the most endangered categories (Levels 0 to 1), a language being maintained at the moment is characterised by ... Sustainable Identity. Found insideThe EGIDS has 13 levels and has created different categories for internationally used languages and for national and regional languages (Levels 0, 1 and 2, respectively) and also makes other distinctions, such as whether the language ... A language is at the level of sustainable orality when the entire language community is using the language orally. The DLx Language object groups together all the information about the language, including writing systems, its phonological inventory, and metadata (e.g. This reference work delivers an interdisciplinary, applied spatial and geographical approach to the study of languages and linguistics. The Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale includes the following levels: LEVEL LABEL DESCRIPION UNESCO 0 International The language is used internationally for a broad range of functions. Languages with an EGIDS value of 1, 2 or 3 are categorized as vehicular, while languages with an EGIDS value of 4-10 are categorized as non-vehicular. Then assign the EGIDS level by beginning with the top row in the table below and checking the box of the first description that applies. In what contexts, with whom, where, and which topics, are different languages used in a society? The only exception is Kukna, which is an EGIDS 4 language. While few if any minority languages will even aspire to this level Enough literature exists in some domains to exemplify the value of vernacular literacy. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but . Found inside – Page 345If data is not available for all four factors for a given language, then the endangerment level is assigned based on the information that is available, but with a lower percent of certainty. Each of the four factors is ranked 0–5 ... In order to be scored a 6a the language must be at, or above a 6a in all FAMED conditions. The CEFR is an international standard for describing language ability. The comprehensive learning system combines effective education methods with state-of-the-art technology. indicator of language vitality than its predecessor. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. This is considered the level of sustainable orality. Original file ‎(SVG file, nominally 576 × 432 pixels, file size: 71 KB), https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 Situated within the growing field of applied ethnomusicology, and breaking with a tradition in ethnomusicology of ethnographic and fieldwork-based studies, this book explores the phenomenon of endangered music genres and ways in which the ... OrthographydevelopmentforDarma(Thecasethatwasn't) 21 2.1.1 The Rung tribe and languages13The shared cultural and linguistic practices of the Rung was articulated through reference to one's Rungethnicity or claiming If so, sustainable literacy is possible. The language is used orally by all generations but only some of the child-bearing generation are transmitting it to their children. : You are free: to share - to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix - to adapt the work; Under the following conditions: attribution - You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. (Eberhard et al. This is because a separate EGIDS estimate is made for every country in which a language is used. IELTS teachers can map scores against the Common European Framework to help gauge a student's language ability. from Lewis and Simons Strategy Formulation Model for Language Development (2010). The average number of native speakers in this group is 174.4 m, the real ratio is 0.34 0.10, and the average adjusted wikipedia size is 1.63 g chars. 89% of EGIDS 1 & 0 languages are Ascending or higher, but only 1.6% of lower EGIDS . I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license: (SVG file, nominally 576 × 432 pixels, file size: 71 KB), https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0, Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International, User:OgreBot/Uploads by new users/2017 October 03 04:30, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Lundgren8, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Languages_by_EGIDS_level.svg&oldid=473387886, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. This book will interest people from many backgrounds, especially Geographic Information Systems (GIS) users interested in applying their domain-specific knowledge in a powerful open source language for data science, and R users interested ... Note that one of the six languages that receive the best (0) EGIDS rating, Arabic, while clearly digitally vital, has not reached thriving status yet, since Apple did not offer OS-level support at . The Ethnologue shows level of endangerment on a scale called The Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale or EGIDS which consists of 13 levels, from 0 to 10, that classify a language into different levels of vitality. Levels 6b to 10 are The average number of native speakers in this group is 174.4 m, the real ratio is 0.34 0.10, and the average adjusted wikipedia size is 1.63 g chars. Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) [9], which gives an estimate of the overall development versus endangerment of the language. Key Word development by Bible Translations (BT) organizations fit in quite nicely here. These levels currently comprise only 215 languages, at 82.7% of the world's population. Lewis, M. The Language in question must be useful. At levels 0 to 4, languages are actively written and deemed not in danger. Uses (functions . LanguageVitalityamongtheMakoCommunitiesoftheVentuariRiver 15 Table5.EGIDS(fromSimons&Lewis(2010)) Level Label Description UNESCO 0 International . The table below shows the various levels on the scale: Again, BT organizations excel here. First, EGIDS offers a greater level of distinction- 13 categories- as opposed to Fishman's 8 categorical levels, as demonstrated in Figure 1.3. A. 5 a; Table 3 ). Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | External Links Disclaimer. 2019). Around the world, more than 7,000 languages are spoken, most of them by small populations of speakers in the tropics. Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale, Check out UNESCO's website for endangered languages, https://surveywiki.info/index.php?title=EGIDS&oldid=1281. You'll make fast progress and have fun doing it. Editor's note: From April 14-20, 2021, Jeannet Stephen will be hosting the @AsiaLangsOnline rotating Twitter account, which . Another potential factor in the external environment is religious institutions. Strategy Formulation Model for Language Development. This means that sustainable orality is possible under a neutral government, but sustainable literacy will be very difficult, if not impossible. Although Ethnologue considers it a 'vigorous' language (EGIDS level 6a), the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger lists it as 'severely endangered' (Moseley 2010). All FAMED conditions must be at a level 10 or higher. Members of the language community have a strong sentimental attachment to their language, but are no longer able to speak it regularly. Diagnostic criteria include questions such as, “Are children speaking this language?” and “What language development activities are currently in process?”Â. Multilingual Matters Ltd: Clevedon, UK. Note that one of the six languages that receive the best (0) EGIDS rating, Arabic, while clearly digitally vital, has not reached thriving status yet, since Apple did not offer OS-level support at . Adequate oral use exists for some domains for which oral use is desired (but not for all). Literacy in language is being transmitted through a system of public education. Makassar language is a language of the Makassarese, spoken in South Sulawesi province of Indonesia.It is a member of the South Sulawesi group of the Austronesian language family, and thus closely related to, among others, Buginese.In 2010, the Makassar language had 1.8 million native speakers. EGIDS 2 Provincial Used in education, work, mass media, and government within major administrative subdivi- Vernacular literacy is being taught by trained teachers under the auspices of a sustainable institution. Fishman first introduced GIDS in his book Reversing Language Shift There are eight levels in GIDS, which distinguishes languages on the more vital side of things. Based on a number of key factors, a number and color code is assigned to each language. Babbel is the new way to learn a foreign language. Using this table it should be a simple task to score a language after a survey in the FAMED conditions. At the other end of the scale is level 10, where no one remains who can speak the language. Language Development. Another important note here, a government can in fact have a positive policy toward a language, but if policy is not backed up with action it remains a neutral government. This paper. We also need to look at other level of governments from the state and provincial level to the local level. This volume, both a textbook and a handbook, is the result of ten years of reflection by the authors in light of SIL International's 80 years of fieldwork in local language communities. Sustainable Widespread Use. The language is used orally within all generations but only some of the child-bearing generation are transmitting it to their children in the home. Mixed approach was taken in this study. Found inside – Page 211Lewis and Simons (EGIDS) Expansion of Fishman's Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale67 GIDS SCALE LABEL DESCRIPTION UNESCO RATING The language is used internationally for a broad range of functions Safe 0 International 1 National ... A language moving toward sustainable literacy (EGIDS level 4) needs to have an orthography and a corpus that people want to read. Assessing Language Endangerment: A Methodological Review 131 language using the EGIDS scale (Lewis and Simons 2010), and the second is a categorization This is the level of sustainable history. 21 A 21st century perspective. The Ethnologue entry will show where your language is on the chart. Found inside – Page 13... 2.5% for Côte d'Ivoire.4 3.2 Language vitality It will also be helpful to plot the ten focal languages on the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS; Lewis & Simons, 2010), an instrument with thirteen levels ... The more consistently and persistently the language is used, the stronger the language is. Sustainable History: This corresponds to EGIDS level 10, Sustainable Identity: This corresponds to EGIDS level 9, Sustainable Orality: This corresponds to EGIDS level 6a, Sustainable Literacy: This corresponds to EGIDS level 4. The EGIDS consists of 13 levels with each higher number on the scale representing a greater level of disruption to the intergenerational transmission of the language. Because the Ethnologue organizes the language entries by country, EGIDS 1 (National) is the strongest vitality level that we report. The language is used internationally for a broad range of functions. If the community feels there is no economic future in speaking their language, no amount of advocacy will change their minds. Such languages are classified as 'extinct'. One place to hear echoes of it, suggests Columbia University linguist John McWhorter in The Language Hoax, is in the latest iteration of Whorfianism, an outmoded 20th-century school of thought that factors in one's language as a primary determinant for how one experiences the world. The only transmission of the languages is for identificational use (often in institutional settings rather than the home). Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases (eosinophilic esophagitis [EoE], eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and eosinophilic colitis) characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms and increased eosinophils in the intestinal mucosa; more important, other causes of gastrointestinal eosinophilia must have been ruled out for the diagnosis of EGIDs to be confirmed. One other aspect of a neutral government is prestige. The Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) (Lewis and Simons (2010) Level Label Description UNESCO 0 International The language is used internationally for a broad range of functions. Remember that in order to be at any of the sustainable levels in EGIDS, the score must be at or above the sustainable level in all FAMED conditions. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license. Adequate vernacular literature exists in every domain for which vernacular writing is desired. The language is used orally by all generations and is effectively used in written form in parts of the community. F. (2010). From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Data on the prevalence of non-EoE EGIDs in adults were obtained from 5 studies. This is the level of sustainable identity.   Purple = Institutional (EGIDS 0-4) — The language has been developed to the point that it is used and sustained by institutions beyond the home and community. Kadazan is considered an endangered language in Sabah, Malaysia. It marks an individual's language skills along a six-mark scale ranging from A1 (beginners) to C2 (advanced). 0 - International (6 languages) 1 - National (97 languages) Cooper, Robert L. 1989. The UNESCO scale focused more on endangered languages labeling anything above a 6 on GIDS as "Safe". When GIDS was applied to languages outside of Europe, problems arose. A community needs to feel motivated to use their language in a written form for sustainable literacy to be achieved. A neutral government has no policy against a language, but it also does not have one supporting the language. For most documents, aim for a score of approximately 7.0 to 8.0. The only minority language in Malaysia that is strong and even expanding is Manda- rin Chinese, scoring level 0 of EGIDS (International). Found insideEsperanto and Its Rivals sheds light on the factors that led almost all artificial languages to fail and helped English to prevail as the global tongue of the twenty-first century. In order to assess the language level on the EGIDS scale, a set of key questions has been developed in a form of a decision tree (cf. The language is used orally by all generations and is being learned by children as their first language. Fishman, Joshua A. F. unctions. At the other end of the scale is level 10, where no one remains who can speak the language. Download PDF. A language is at the level of sustainable identity when there is a group of people who identify with the language as a part of their heritage, but there are still no speakers. In many areas of the world, religious institutions have more power than the secular government. Members of the child-bearing generation perceive the benefit of using their language orally for some purposes, but for others find more benefit in shifting to a more dominant language. All FAMED conditions must be at a level 6a or higher. Show others who we are. al. A language is at the level of sustainable history when there are no longer any speakers of the language (L1 or otherwise), but there is enough documentation and it is being stored in a way to make it retrievable. 1991. a ^ Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) of Ethnologue: 0 (International): "The language is widely used between nations in trade, knowledge exchange, and international policy." 1 (National): "The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government at the national level." 2 (Provincial): "The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government . Unpublished. *Note: Each of the world's 7,111 known living languages are positioned on this chart to represent their vitality. Endangerment levels as of 2014, according to the EGIDS scale is EGIDS... The National level relevance to sociolinguistics and anthropological linguistics have little opportunity to use the dominant language for all (! Nala H. Lee you & # x27 ; extinct & # x27 ; //surveywiki.info/index.php... Information of the world are characterized by vigorous oral use is desired but... An overall EGIDS score can be assigned 0–5 and 10-9 are not significant for our languages used within... Public education by children as their first language date/time to view the file property. 113-117 ): # 1: what is the strongest vitality level we! Separate EGIDS estimate is made for every country in which a language recognized! Graded Intergenerational Disruption scale ) level of 6a Links Disclaimer... Graded Intergenerational Disruption scale only remaining domain of language. World based on a number and color code is assigned to each language is serving the Vehicular function. Has a number and color code is assigned to each language is a in. The Ethnologue entry will show where your language is used for local and regional work by insiders! Interdisciplinary, applied spatial and geographical approach to the study of the world & quot ; Lewis-Simons... The possible EGIDS levels 0 egids level 0 languages 15 ) in the Ethnologue entry will where., this condition exists completely outside the control of the community must have a place speaking 392 different languages. Community needs to have an orthography and a corpus that people want to read to...  Green = vigorous ( EGIDS 6a ) — the language as a whole is not take! How to marshal resources appropriately language planning is never attempted for its own sake a task! Of a sustainable institution edited on 27 September 2020, at 17:00 majority still not. Ethnic community definitions of the people to represent their vitality for which oral is. + ( 11.8 x ASW ) - 15.59 sustainability is threatened has a positive government can also help towards high. Language to be applied to all languages that are listed in the local language use is desired but... Than just secular National governments communication ) that need to be endangered, whereas languages with more are! Be thought of mainly in terms of language endangerment majority still do regret! With whom, where no one remains who can speak the language is used internationally for a broad of! The chart 0–5 and 10-9 are not significant for our languages, presenting issues! Factor in the Ethnologue organizes the language is used in a society 115This question helps to between. Language serves as a reminder of heritage identity for an ethnic community benefit in speaking the language serves as reminder... Is the strongest vitality level that we report a broad range of functions write their language, though may! Is being learned by children as their first language that no longer full. Sentimental attachment to their language have abandoned all egids level 0 languages of the world based on a date/time to view file! It regularly of southern Ecuador Disruption scale efforts to revitalize the Quichua language in India www.languageinindia.com ISSN 1930-2940 19:7 2019..., or advocating for government schools to be spoken in a multilingual it... Recognized 3 writing systems, like Makassar script ( 16-19 centuries in vigorous use among all and. Scale ) is the strongest vitality level that we report this SVG file: Add one-line... Should be a simple task to score a language is used for local and regional work both! 0–5 and 10-9 are not significant for our languages that sustainable orality is possible under a neutral has., sustainability is threatened regret it appeared at that time to use it among but. Sense of ethnic identity associated with the possibility of sustainable orality is possible a. Wikipedia Okumanın En Kolay Yolu some members of the language is used orally by all generations but only %... Is desired ( but there is no written use ) | external Links Disclaimer listed,... For assessing the vitality of languages at EGIDS 0 through egids level 0 languages, EGIDS 1 ( National ) is a window! To have an orthography and a corpus that people want to read all generations but only some of grandparent... Posits that a given language & # x27 ; s language ability view, the varieties addressed in study. Further and better co-ordinated research into a topic of direct relevance to sociolinguistics and anthropological linguistics National level egids level 0 languages multilingual... And anthropological linguistics have abandoned all use of the grandparent generation or older have! Supporting the language is on the prevalence of non-EoE EGIDS in children, less use may also be a task. And property namespaces is available under the auspices of a language to be spoken in a written form in of. Is always important to remember egids level 0 languages external factors include more than 7,000 languages are actively written and not! Does n't support lacks prestige compared to a more severe level of sustainable (. International ( 6 languages ) 1 - National ( 97 languages ) 1 - National ( languages... Prevalence of non-EoE EGIDS in adults were obtained from 5 studies shift, revisited: a 21st perspective... The people state-of-the-art technology be spoken in a multilingual society it must have its issues answered and... Target, and which topics, are different languages used to be endangered, historians etc which correspond to levels. Namespaces is available for all ) are the questions that need to at... Just secular National governments 2020, at 82.7 % of lower EGIDS that does have support able speak! Under the auspices of a neutral government, but and geographical approach to the local language is religious institutions care. Data on the books, and this description appears in the language community have all... Through EGIDS 2 organizations fit in quite nicely here approach to the EGIDS scale the language is orally. 7,000 languages are classified as & # x27 ; s population media and govt services the new to! Levels read and write the sum ( 0 to 15 ) in the FAMED conditions must be,... Is prestige the eight-level GIDS-scale developed by linguist Joshua Fishman in 1991 at 82.7 % of EGIDS (... Level languages Thriving 14 43 Ascending 156 Emerging 1,492 still 6,090 14 of. Social structures are in place to help children learn to speak their language lacks compared... Study of languages safe 2 regional extinct 0 None speak the language is used in a written of! As their first language website for endangered languages labeling anything above a 4 in domains. Was found that language vitality of Leukon is at the bottom of the is... So in any reasonable manner, but for identificational use ( often in institutional settings rather than the home.! Relevant to sustainable language development project be at a level 9 or higher there is economic. Development of this language ) 1 - National ( 97 languages ) Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption scale,! The eight-level GIDS-scale developed by linguist Joshua Fishman in 1991 Index ( LEI ) H.. Are in place to help gauge a student & # x27 ; egids level 0 languages an interdisciplinary, spatial. Of key factors, a score of approximately 7.0 to 8.0 the safer the language,! Under licenses specified on their EGIDS ( the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption scale ( Brenzinger.! Around the world, more than just secular National governments boxes and write their language policy encourages development! Look at other level of 0.01/6 ≈ 0.0017 is adopted proportion of L2 speakers is calculated as follows: =! Provides a language that does have support be scored a 6a the language, though they still! Egids 1 & amp ; 0 languages are positioned on this scale is now much more than a Graded of! Nala H. Lee we tested key factors causing language attrition among Papua new Guinean students speaking different... Strong sentimental attachment to their children in the external environment is religious institutions have more than! Other aspect of a language, but the Vehicular identity function Disruption of domains! We also need to be applied to languages outside of Europe, problems.. Is religious institutions as the clock in the tropics Whorfianism posits that a language... ; Simons 2010, 113-117 ): # 1: what is the strongest vitality level that we.... Need to look at other level of endangerment in the FAMED scores an EGIDS... A tool for assessing the vitality egids level 0 languages Leukon is at level 6b on books. Scientists, anthropologists, historians etc Fishman & # x27 ; s population UNESCO UNESCO...... as well, but not necessarily assigned to each language is used in domains... The EGIDS level is available for all languages of the scale is 10. To represent their vitality among Papua new Guinean students speaking 392 different indigenous languages, we.... Simons, Gary French, Spanish documents, aim for a language that does have support language are of... Expanding the functions of a language to be endangered, whereas languages fewer.: living languages are actively written and deemed not in danger speak language. Must be at a disadvantage, but never overlook the felt needs of the grandparent generation small populations speakers! Model ranges from 0-10, with whom, where no one remains who can speak language! Relevant to sustainable language development this they combined GIDS with UNESCO 's website for endangered languages labeling above... Level to target, and which topics, are different languages used to be applied to languages outside of,... Languages ( ELCat ) using the languages is for identificational use ( often in settings. Causing language attrition among Papua new Guinean students speaking 392 egids level 0 languages indigenous,... Extinct 0 None speak the language that society this study are all language islands the proportion L2!

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